Explanation of Residential Satisfaction in the internal and external renewal Experiences of Deteriorated urban areas


1 Urbanization PhD Researcher, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor of Urbanization, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of Architecture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran


Deteriorated urban textures are areas of a city isolated from developmental life cycle. They have turned into the focus of problems and inefficiencies. The evaluation of renewal actions claims to promote residents’ satisfaction in some cases. At the same time of improving objective and economic quality of life, there are claims regarding the lack of any improvements in their subjective quality of life.
Above physical reforms, renewal actions in deteriorated textures should consider the issue of enhancing residents’ quality of life. Hence, besides considering physical aspects, renewal thoughts must also seek to provide and promote their quality of life and satisfaction. This article explains the status of residents’ satisfaction in the internal and external experiences of urban deteriorated fabrics renewal.
To do so, first, the aspects of residential satisfaction in deteriorated textures will be discussed. Then, the status of these aspects in renewal experiences will be reviewed. Accordingly, the aspects of achieving residential satisfaction in these fabrics are explained via deductive reasoning method. Based on historical research method, renewal experiences are studied regarding the aspects of residential satisfaction.  
Residential satisfaction in deteriorated fabrics is influenced by all physical-environmental, services, socio-cultural, managerial, and economic aspects. Reviewing the renewal experiences across the world showed that, by 1990s, renewal was only continued based on physical and economic aspects in deteriorated areas.
Yet, in this decade, it was tried to include social, managerial, and subjective aspects of residential satisfaction in the renewal of these textures by participating residents and stakeholders in the whole renewal process and using the existing social capital.
In Iran, again, the evolutions of renewal thinking and actions show that, by 2000s, renewal was mainly done based on physical and economic aspects with a rationalistic, top-down and one-way management. Yet, in 2000s, it was tried to provide the scene for considering social and qualitative issues by participatory planning and development in the local scale.   


1) Aeini, M. 2007. Economic, financial, and managerial issues in the improvement and renewal of urban old textures, Tehran: Building and Housing Research Center (in Persian).
2) Amini, Elham, 2008. An analysis of urban texture and its deterioration factors in Iran from urbanization perspective, 1st conference of urban old texture improvement and renewal, Mashhad.
3) Andalib, A. R., 2007. A new approach toward the management of Tehran old textures renewal, Tehran Renewal Organization Press, 2nd print (in Persian).
4) Andalib, A. R.,  2010. Urban renewal principles: a new approach toward old textures, Tehran: Azarakhsh Press (in Persian).
5) Bonaiuto, M., Fornara, F., Bonnes, M., 2006. Perceived residential environment quality in middle and low extension italian cities. Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée, vol. 56, pp. 23-34.
6) Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., Rodgers, W. L., eds., 1976. The Quality of American Life. Perceptions, Evaluations and Satisfactions, New-York: Russel Sage Foundation.
7) Carmon, N., 1999. Three generations of urban renewal policies: analysis and policy implications, Geoforum, vol. 30, 1999, pp. 145-158.
8) Cheung, C. K. & Leung, K. K., 2008. Enhancing life satisfaction by government accountability in China, Social Indicators Research.
9) Corbusier, L., 1971. Le Corbusier: City Tomorrow (Hardcover), Published January 1st 1971 by The MIT Press.
10) Delafons, J., 1997. Polities and Preservation: A Policy History of Built Heritage, (1882-1996), London: Taylor & Francies.
11) Diener, E. and Lucas, R., 2000. Explaining differences in societal levels of happiness: Relative standards, need fulfillment, culture and evaluation theory, Journal of Happiness Studies, vol. 1, pp. 41-78.
12) Galster, G. C., HESSER, G. W., 1981. Residential satisfaction compositional and contextual correlates, Environment and Behavior, vol. 13, pp. 735–58.
13)Goodman M. D., & Monti D. J., 1999. Corporately sponsored redevelopment campaigns and the social stability of urban neighborhoods: St. Louis revisited, Journal of Urban Affairs, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 101–127.
14)Gordon, D., 2006. Planning Twentieth Century Capital Cities, London & New York: Routledge.
15) Habibi, M. & Maghsoudi, M. 2006. Urban refurbishment: definitions, theories, experiences, global charters, and resolutions, urban methods and actions, Tehran, University of Tehran (in Persian).
16) Hajipour, Kh. 2007. An introduction into the trend of urban refurbishment approaches evolution and development, from post-world war I to the third millennium, Andisheh Iranshahr Quarterly, 2nd year, no. 9 & 10, Tehran, Iran.
17) Heydari, A. & Tabasi, I., 2008. Urban old textures, social and cultural aspects (recognizing opportunities and threats), 1st conference of improvement and renewal of urban old texture, Mashhad.
18) Hoseini, J. 2008. Design of neighborhood participation in the renewal and improvement of urban old textures, 1st conference of improvement and renewal of urban old texture, Mashhad.
19) Hall, P., ed., 1981. The inner city in context: The final report of the Social Science Research Council Inner Cities Working Party, London: Heinemann.
20)Izady, M. S., 2001. Studying urban refurbishment experiences in Iran with an emphasis on the evolutions of the last two decades, Civil and Urban Improvement Quarterly, 2nd year, no. 3.
21)Izady, M. S., 2010. An analytical review of the three decades of policy making, planning, and executive actions in the improvement and recreation of urban disorganized textures, Secretariat of Expediency Discernment Council, Fundamental and Manufacturing Affairs Commission, Equipment, Housing, and Urbanization Commission (in Persian).
22) Kup, A., 1987. Rehabilitation architecture, trans. by Habibi, M., Tehran, Building and Housing Research Center.
23) Lotfi, S., 2011. Genealogy of urban recreation: from reconstruction to renewal, Tehran, Azarakhsh Press (in Persian).
24) McCrea, R., Stimson, R. and Western, J., 2006. Testing a general model of satisfaction with urban living using data for South East Queensland, Australia, Social Indicators Research, vol. 72, pp. 121-152.
25) Miller, F. D., Tsemberis, S., Malia, G. P. & Grega, D., 1980. Neighborhood satisfaction among urban dwellers. Journal of Social Issues, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 101-117.
26) Onibokun, A. G., 1974. Evaluating Consumers Satisfaction with Housing: An Application of a Systems Approach, Journal of the American Institute of Planners, vol. 40, May, pp. 189-200.
27) Phillips et al., 2005. The impacts of dwelling conditions on older persons, psychological well-being, In: Hong Kong: the mediating role of residential satisfaction, Social Science & Medicine ,no.60, pp.85–97.
28) Rampichini, C. & D’Andrea, S. S., 1998. A hierarchical ordinal probit model for the analysis of life satisfaction in Italy, Social Indicators Research, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 41–69.
29) Roberts, P. &  Sykes, H., 2000. Urban Regeneration, SAGE Publications Ltd.
30) Tse, R. Y. C., 2002. Estimating neighborhood effects in house prices: Towards a new hedonic model approach, Urban Studies, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 1165–1180.
31) Van Criekingen, M. & Decroly, J. M., 2003. Revisiting the diversity of gentrification: Neighbourhood renewal processes in brussels and montreal, Urban Studies, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 2451–2465.
32) Varesi, H., Taghvaii M. & Rezaii, N., 2012. Organizing urban old texture (case study: Shiraz), Isfahan, Scientific and Specialized Journal of Spatial Planning.
33) Veenhoven, R., Saris, W. E., Scherpenzeel, A. C. & Bunting B., eds., 1996. A comparative study of satisfaction with life in Europe, Eötvös University Press.
34) Wilson, J. Q., ed., 1966. Urban Renewal: The Record and the Controversy, Cambridge: MIT Press.
35) Yiu, C. Y. & Wong, S. K., 2005. The effects of expected transport improvements on housing prices. Urban Studies, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 113–125.
36) Shamaei, A. & Ahmadpour, A., 2005. Urban improvement and renewal from geography perspective, University of Tehran (in Persian).