Application of driving force- Pressure- State- Impact- Response (DPSIR) Framework for Analyzing the Human habitat in City of Tehran


1 Associated in the Graduate Faculty of Environment. University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistance professor in the Graduate Faculty of Environment. University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Human habitat change is a complicated issue that many factors play different roles in its formation and distribution. Considering this complication, a more comprehensive and holistic approach is needed for a better understanding and management of those factors. The causal frameworks are among systemic and integrated methods for addressing the causes of environmental problems and the relationships that exist between the environmental systems for proposing proper solutions. The DPSIR model is a functional analysis framework to depict the cause-effect relationships that exist in creating environmental problems. Tehran is one of the major megacities in the Middle East that faces environmental consequences of over population and unplanned urban sprawl, and because of its location in arid region, its vulnerable to rise of environmental problem. In this research, by using the DPSIR framework, different aspects of habitat condition of Tehran are analyzed and later with the help of this conceptual framework, strategies for controlling urban environment.
The results show that urbanization is the major driving force that is induced by overpopulation and the need for further urban sprawl, which cause pressure on natural resources. The state of housing and rapid land use changes have brought about unfavorable living conditions that result in unfavorable impacts on public health and safety, which are the results of ineffective policies and solutions.


2) Liangyong, W. 2002. Human settlements. Beijing: Tsinghua University press.
3) Ministry of Health and Medical Education. 2012. Tehran municipality information and communication technology organization.
4) Niemeijer, D., & de Groot, R. S. 2008. A conceptual framework for selecting environmental indicator sets. Ecological Indicators, 8, 14-25.
5) Office of Construction Permits of Tehran Municipality. 2011. Inquiry.
6) Organization of radio Communications. 2011. Inquiry.
7) Salehi, E. 2007. The role of environmental and visual calmness in crime prevention. 85-106.
8) Secretary of Planning and Urban Development of Tehran Municipality. 2012. Intermediate-term action plan of Tehran Municipality- 2011 to 2013.
9) Smeets, E., &Weterings, R. 1999. Environmental Indicators: Typology and Overview. Copenhagen: EEA.
10) Svarstad, H., Petersen, L. K., Rothman, D., Siepel, H., &Watzold, F. 2008. Discursive biases of the environmental research framework DPSIR. Land Use Policy, 25(1), 116-125.
11) Talbei, H. and Zangiabadi, A. 2001. Analysis of Indicators and identifying effective factors in human development in Iran’s major cities. Journal of geographic research.
12) TarahanParseh Transportation Research Institute (TRI). 2013. Study and Identification of a system for calculation of optimum tariff for car ownership impositions in Great Tehran. First edition. Municipality of Tehran.
13) Tehran Province Annual Statistical Report. 2008. Tehran Provincial Government. Deputy of Planning and Management.
14) Tehran Waste Management Organization. 2012. Inquiry.