The Analysis of the Role of Green Walls in Reduction of Heat Islands in Tehran


1 M.S student Architecture ,Department of Architecture and Urban Planning , Islamic Azad University,Qazvin Branch, ,Qazvin, Iran

2 Professor of Architecture at the Colleg e of Fine Arts, University of Tehran.Tehran,Iran


With the development of urbanization and population growth in the use of land for construction of residential and industrial areas and other infrastructure and turning to remove more vegetation,construction materials and non-systematic misuse of cities,urban areas have forced some changes that pollution and poor air quality,dehydration,high temperatures are some of its results.The temperature difference between the central and dense big cities and its suburbs is named Urban Heat (Thermal) Islands that enter the city to a self-destructive cycle.In this way the hot and polluted air increase the city temperature in the central and dense big city,due to closure of wind passing ways and absorption heat by the most of materials in city surfaces and decreasing humidity,so we use more utilities and electricity for temporary relief.However,the generated heat return to the cycle by the facilities,causing to be warmer and upper city temperature and enhance heat islands.This has devastating and fatal effects on human health.It causing many diseases and encounter with loss of water resourses,drought and more polluted air.Then must find ways to reduce this phenomenon at the same time,such as:Planting trees(especially the shady type of them),vegetation(with increasing humidity and cooling environment),the use of reflective surfaces(rooftops and sidewalks,walls of buildings that organize most of city areas)which includes cool paving such as light-colored materials and create shadows on the floor, also porous and pervious paving,ligh-colored roofs,green roofs,use of green walls in the building,reduce facility outcome heat by using natural ventilation,reducing the height of buildings for local winds passage.In this research,one of the strategies have been fully reviewed namely the green walls and its role in reducing urban heat islands.And present the best model by examining a few built examples in Tehran.Correlation Research methodology is descriptive-analytic.Some results of this research are as follows:Green wall on the facade of the building acts as insulation and prevents thermal fluctuations by creating an air layer.Some of the radiated rays is reflected by the leaves of plants and the others are absorbed by plant  and it cause surface evaporation and moisturing to the environment.By using of green wall in canyon(due to high altitude of buildings or topography)can prevent of absorption and storage of too much sun radiation energy during the day and also of anthropogenic heat.


1. Attmann, Osman (2010) “Green architecture : advanced technologies and materials”, translator: Sarah Zohari, first eddition, Mehrazan publishing, Tehran.
2. Ahmadi, Farhad (2003) “Sustainable architecture”, Quarterly Journal of Architecture and Urbanism Abadi ;vol 13 ,No. 41-40, pp. 46-43.
3. Akbari Hashem & Bell,Ryan & Brazel,Tony & Cole,David & Estes,Maury & Heisler, Gordon &… (2008)Reducing Urban Heat Islands: compendium of Strategies,Urban Heat Islands Basics ,EPA, USA.
4. AIA(2008)Introduction to Green Walls Technology,Benefit & Design ,AIA Continuing Education ,Sep ,USA . Available on IntroductionGreenWalls.pdf
5. Behtash,M.F & Moradi ,S & NeginTaji,S (2013) “ Evaluation of effective dimensions of urban form on air quality ,case study: Tehran”, Center of Studies and Planning of Tehran, Report No. 212.
6. Bjerre, Laurent Aupetit ( 2011) Green Walls ,VIA University College ,Nov , Denmark. Available on
7. Considerations for Advanced Green Facade Design (2012) Green Screen, L.A ,USA
Available on
8. EPA(2009)Urban Heat Islands,Basics Description,Impacts,and Issues,by the Houston Advanced Research Center ,U.S Environmental Protection Agency,September.
9. Freed, Reuben & Garner ,Greg & … (2008),Introduction to Green Walls Technology, Benefits & Design,Green Roofs for Healthy Cities ,September. Available on
10. Gartland , Lisa(2008)Heat Islands : Understanding and Mitigating Heat in Urban Areas , published by Earthscan ,UK.
11. Ghiabaklou,Z (2011) “Basics of Building Physics 2:Set environmental conditions”, Second
Edition,Published by Amir Kabir University,Tehran.
12. Ghiabaklou ,Z (2013) “Basics of building physics 4: passive cooling” , First Edition , Published by Amir Kabir University, Tehran.
13. Ghorbi,M (2013) “The impact of contemporary architecture and urbanism on the creation of heat island” ,The 2nd National Conference on Climate, Building and Energy Efficiency Department, Isfahan.
14. Hui,Sam.C.M(2013)Benefits and Potential of Vertical Greening Systems ,Department of Mechanical Engineering , Hong Kong, March. Available on
15. Karimian ,Z & Tehranifar ,A & Banaeean,M & Aziz,M & Kazemi,F (2013) “The study of urban vegetation and hard surfaces on the micro-climate and thermal comfort” , Journal of Horticultural Science, Volume 45, Number 4, Winter, pp 461-473.
16. Knowles, Lauren & MacLean, Paige & Rosato , Melissa & Stanley, Conrad & Volpe, Stefania & Yousif , Dave & Professor Wismer, Susan :Living Wall A Feasibility Study for the SLC, WATgreen Available on
17. Loh,Susan(2008)Living Walls-A Way to Green The Built Environment,BEDP Environment Design Guide, TEC 26,Aug.
18. Mazloomi , M (2011) Urban heat islands and strategies to deal with it from the urbanism and architectural viewpoint , Bimonthly of Shhrngar, August and September, No 55, pp: 91-79.
19. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment(MEA),( 2005) Ecosystems and Human Well-being, Washington ,DC.
20. Natarajan,Mukunth & Rahimi,Mansour & Sen,Shouvik & Mackenzie, Nadim & Imanbayev,Yernar(2014) Living Wall Systems: Evaluating Life-cycle Energy, Water and Carbon Impacts,Urban Ecosyst,Springer.
21. Ottele, Mark(2011)The Green Building Envelope Vertical Greening ,SiecaRepro Publishing ,Netherlands.
22. Peck , Steven W & Chris Callaghan (1999) Green Backs From Green Roofs : Forging A New Industry In Canada, Canada Mortgage & Housing Corporation .
23. Perini , Katia (2012) The Integration of Vegetation in Architecture ,Vertical & Horizontal Greened
Surfaces ,International Journal of Biology,Vol 4 ,No 2,Apr, Elsevier,England.
24. Rahimi Meshkin,M (2011)” Construction of green walls on the shell of buildings and its role in sustainable architecture”, 2nd National Conference on Sustainable Architecture ,Hamadan , March .
25. Sa’adat abadi, A & Aliakbari,A & Sadeghi, A (2005) “Effect of heat island and urbanism on weather and local climate in Tehran” , Quarterly Journal of Environmental Studies ,Issue 39, Summer 2005, pp. 59-68.
26. Sasanpour , F & Ziaeean ,P & Bahadori, M (2012)” Reviews relation between land-use and land cover and heat islands of Tehran”, International Quarterly Journal of Geographic Society, Volume XI, Issue 39, Winter, pp. 256-270 .
27. Sayadi, E & Madahi, M (2012) “Sustainable architecture” , second edition , published by Lotus .
28. Shakiba ,A & Ziaeean ,P & Ashoorlou ,D & Namdari ,S (2009) “Analisis of land-use and land cover relation of heat islands in Tehran” , Journal of Remote Sensing & GIS , Beheshti University, Tehran, The first Issue, spring 2009,pp 39-56.
29. Shiah , Kevin & Jeong Woo Kim ,An Investigation into the Application of Vertical Garden at the New SUB Atrium ( 2011) The University of British Columbia, Nov , Canada. Available on
30. Tasa, Hamid (2010) “Green wall and its role in urban development with a sustainable development approach”, 1nd Conference of Sustainable Urban Development, Tehran University ,Tehran , Jun.
31. Voogt, James (2007) How Researchers Measure Urban Heat Islands,InUnited States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), State and Local Climate and Energy Program, Heat Island Effect, Urban Heat Island Webcasts and Conference Calls. July. Availableon
32. Practical instruction of green wall construction on the shell of buildings (2010) assistance department of urban services of parks and green spaces in Tehran .
33. Standards of urban green space design (2001 ), Technical office and the formulation of the criteria , publication of management and planning organization, first edition .
39. www.Green Living