Analysis of Effective Key Factors in Adaptability of a Building in the Future with an Emphasis on Flexibility in Historical Buildings (Case Study: Bu-Ali of Hamadan )

Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D. Candidate of Architecture, Borujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd, Iran.

2 Professor of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor of Urban Planning, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.


Today, since the contemporary world is changing to meet the needs of various people, the aim should be to provide a condition for areas and buildings in order to respond to the needs of various shapes, its future audience requirements, adaptability, flexibility, versatility, etc. Since the scarcity of environmental resources and ecological crises in the world today cannot justify the demolition and reconstruction of areas is more important. So areas should be designed in such a way to compliance with the contemporary needs. Moreover, it can be adaptive to its future audience. The method used in this research is descriptive-analysis collected using questionnaires and library tools and the software SPSS and factor analysis to analyze to express the characteristics and the reliance of each one. The results show that between the effective factors on the admissibility of space users, flexibility has the greatest impact on Adaptability and also its sub-variable (ranging versatility) has the greatest impact on flexibility of the place, and after that, fluidity factors, scalability, flexibility, and eventually, convertibility has had impact in monument of Bu-Ali which is located in Hamedan city Subsequently and convertibility is the least factor influencing the flexibility in monument of Bu-Ali in Hamedan.


  1. Addington, D. M. & D. L. Schodek. (2005). Smart Materials and Technologies for the Architecture and Design Professions, Architectural Press/Elsevier: Oxford.
  2. Afhami, R. & M. Alizadeh. (2013). Flexible housing architecture in the era of demographic trends.177, 57-68. (In persian)
  3. Amid, N. (2013). Repair, regeneration, building, building Weekly Message. 171-180.
  4. Atkins, R. L. (2004). Advanced Energetic Materials, The National Academics Press, Washington, DC.
  5. Beadle, K. & A. Gibb. S. Austin. & A. Fuster. & P. Madden. (2008). adaptable futures: sustainable aspects of adaptable buildings. Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK.
  6. Brubaker, C. W. (1998). Planning and Designing Schools. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  7. Capeluto, G. & C. E. Ochoa. (2014). Simulation-based method to determine climatic energy strategies of an adaptable building retrofit façade system, Energy. Volume 76, 375–384.
  8. Caudill, W. (1954). Toward Better School Design. New York: F.W. Dodge Corporation.
  9. Daneshpour, A. R. & M. Charkhian. (2007). Public spaces and factors affecting communal life, journal Bagh e Nazar, No7, 19-28. (In persian)
  10. Douglas, J. (2006). Building Adaptation, 2nd edn, Butterworth-Heinemann, London.
  11. Einifar, A. (2003). A model of flexibility in traditional housing, No13, 64-77.(In persian)
  12. Falamaki, M. M. (2007). Rehabilitation of historic buildings and cities. Tehran University Press. (In persian)
  13. Gerwin, D. (1993). Manufacturing flexibility: A strategic perspective. Management Science, 39(4), 395-411.
  14. Gibb, A. & S. Austin. A. Dainty. N. Davison. Ch. Pasquire. (2007). Towards Adaptable Buildings: pre-configuration and re-configuration – two case studies, ManuBuild 1st International Conference The Transformation of the Industry: Open Building Manufacturing, 1-12.
  15. Gosling, J. & P. Sassi. M. M. Naim.  R.J. Lark. (2013). Adaptable buildings: a systems approach, Sustainable Cities and Society 7, 44-51.
  16. Grammenos, F. & P. Russel.  (1997). Building adaptability: a view from the future, Proceedings for the 2nd.
  17. Groter, Y. K.: 2008, Aesthetics in architecture. Translation: Jahan Zad. P. & A.  Homayoun. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University Press.
  18. Habraken, N. J. (2008). Design for Flexibility, Buildi1-ng Research & Information, 290-296.
  19. Kheiroldin, R. & E. Kakavand.  M. Omidi. (2014). Green space development approach to impact assessment using the historical perspective of pocket parks in quality improvement (case study: the city of Qazvin). Landscape Research Quarterly City. freshman. No 2. (In persian)
  20. Kincaid, D. (2000). Adaptability potentials for buildings and infrastructure, Facilities, 18(3), 155-161.
  21. Leggett, S.C. & W.Brubaker. & A. Cohodes. & A.S. Shapiro. (1977). Planning Flexible Learning Places. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  22. Mansouri, A. (2010). Cityscape, quality control with quantitative components. Perspective Magazine. 2(11), 6-7. (In persian)
  23. Mohammadi, M. & M.H. Ayat ol Allahi. (2014). Factors in promoting socialization and cultural monuments (Case study: Isfahan Cultural farshchian). Journal of Art University. No15, 79-96. (In persian)
  24. Moore, G. T. & A. L. Jeffery. (1994). Educational Facilities for the Twenty-First Century: Research Analysis and Design Patterns. Publications in Architecture and Urban Planning. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin-Milwauke.
  25. Naim, M. M. & A .T. Potter. & R. J. Mason. & N. Bateman. (2006). The Role of Transport Flexibility in logistics Provision. The International Journal of Logistics Management, 17, 297-311. (In persian)
  26. Riahi Moghadam, S. (2012). Historic landscape management. Landscape Research Quarterly City. (18), 4-9. (In persian)
  27. Schneider, T. & J. Till. (2007). Flexible housing, Architectural Press.
  28. Toghyani, S. (2015). Design of high-rise residential building with the approach of flexibility patterns of traditional Iranian houses. Nonprofit scholars.
  29. Torin, M. (2002). Flexible Space & Built Pedagogy: Emerging IT Embodiments. Invention 4 (1): 1-19.
  30. Tourani, A. R. (2008). The Future of Technology Fundamental Particle in Architecture and Building. No16. (In persian)
  31. Upton, D. M. (1994). The Management of Manufacturing Flexibility. California Management Review 36(2), 7-11.
  32. Yukilheto, Y. (2008). History of Architectural Conservation translated by Mohammad Hassan Talebian and Khashayar Bahari. Published by Aperture. Tehran.
  33. Zandieh, M. &R. Eghbali. P. Hesari. (2011). Flexible housing design methods. Journal Naghshejahan, 95-105. (In persian)
  34. Zebardast, E. (2005). Application of Analytical Hierarchy Process in Urban and Regional Planning. Journal of Fine Arts, 13-21. (In persian)