Analyzing the Intellectual Evolutions of Architectural Design during the Pahlavi Era

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Architecture, Ardabil branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran.

2 Department of Architecture, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran.

3 Department of Architecture and Urbanism, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

4 Department of Architecture, Art University, Tehran, Iran.


Glancing through the contemporary architecture of Iran and its different generations during the Pahlavi era, it seems that there have been notions and ideas regarding the architecture which can be considered as a specific current in the architecture of Iran based on different elements of architecture criticism; then the aim of this study is to scrutinize those notions and ideas and their transformation process.  The following research, in terms of goals, is a development-research project and it is an exploratory research in the terms of essence and quality. The data collection method is library and field research. This research aims to identify the tendencies and approaches of the different generations of contemporary architecture base on the case study method and analyzing the notions and intellectual currents of the architects in the context of their works and answer these questions: What are the concepts and thoughts that have been employed by the architects in this era? Are there any meaningful transformations in these concepts and thoughts? And finally, how have  these transformation been? It is presumed that defining the tendencies of the contemporary architects during the Pahlavi era, from Iranian modernism to nationalism, renaissance like or market-related classicism can evaluate the value of each work in relation to the historical context of the country, in addition, by defining reliable roots and indexes, the existing theoretical current in contemporary history of the architecture of Iran will be recognized. According to the achieved results from the analysis of architectural works in this era, and also by referring to the descriptions of experts, it seems that the ideas and notions in the contemporary architecture can be categorized into three eras and in the framework of different subjects like structure-forming ideas, stylistic references, etc.


  1.  Abrahamian, E. (2015) Iran between two revolutions, Trans: Golmohammadi, Ahmad; Fattahi, Ebrahim, Ney, Tehran.
  2. Azadi, E. (2010), Notions of the contemporary architects of Iran, Farhang-e Saba publications, Ed. 1., Tehran.
  3. Azghandi, S. A. (2004), History of sociopolitical changes in Iran: 1924-1979, Samt publications, Tehran.
  4. Bahrololoumi, H. (1977), Worklog of the society of Iranian works: from the beginning toll 2535, Ministry of the national monuments of Iran.
  5. Bani Masoud, A. (2011), Contemporary architecture of Iran, Honare Memari-e Gharn publications, Tehran.
  6. Cash, Ph. J.(2018).developing theory-driven design research, Design Studies. Volume 56, ,pages 84-119.
  7. Charnley, F., Lemon, M., Evans, S.(2011).Exploring the process of whole system design, Design  Studies. Volume 32, Issue 2, pages 156-179.
  8. Chiu-shui Chan.(1990). Cognitive process in architectural design problem solving, Desing Studies. Volume 11, Issue 2, pages 60-80.
  9. Demirkan, H., Afacan,Y. (2012). Assessing creativity in design of creativity factors in the first- year design studio, Design Studies. Volume 33, Issue 3, pages 262-278.
  10. Dorst, K. (2011).The core of design thinking and its application, Design Studies. Volume 32, Issue 6, pages 521-532.
  11. Eisentraut, R, Gunther, J. (1997). Individual style of problem solving and their relation to representation in the design process. Design Studies. Volume 18,Issue 4,pages 369-383.
  12. Encyclopedia, (1979), Encyclopedia of the Islamic world, Vol. 10., Islamic encyclopedia foundation, Tehran.
  13. Eslami Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali, (1979), What happened to Iran?: Ruling Iran with non-Iranian culture, Ettela'at daily, Issue 15771, Winter.
  14. Friedman, K. 2003.Theory construction in design research criteria: approaches and methods, Design Studies. Volume 24, Issue 6,pages 507-522
  15. Hekmat, A.A. (1977), Thirty memorials from the glorious Pahlavi era, Vahid publications, Tehran.
  16. Henriksen, D., Mehta, R.. (2017). Design thinking: A creative approach to educational problem of practice, Thinking skills and Creativity, Volume 26,page 140-153.
  17. Homayoun, Katouzian; Muhammad, Ali (2016). Political economy of Iran: From the constitutional revolution to the end of Pahlavi era, Trans: Nafisi, Mohammad Reza; Azizi, Kambiz, Markaz Publications, Vol. 2, Tehran.
  18. İğdemir, U., et al. (1968), Ataturk, Trans: Notghi, Hamid, Regional Culture, Tehran.
  19. Ivanof, M. S. (1978), Modern history of iran, Trans: Tizabi, Houshang; Ghaempanah, Hasan, Asloj, Tehran.
  20. Magee, K.(1987).the elicitation of knowledge from designers. Design Studies. Volume 8,Issue 2,pages 62-69.
  21. Moghtader, M. (1993) A period of hundred years of Modernism in the contemporary architecture of Iran, Iran Nameh, vol. 2., Spring.
  22. Roustai, M. (2016), History of the first Iranian cultural center according to the documents: Along with the nominated and lost words of the academy, Ney publications, Tehran.
  23. Saremi. A. (2011) "Architectural place in the world today", Tehran: Abadi.
  24. Sattari, J.(2016), On cultura statelessness: a glance through a number of cultural and artistic activities in the last words of the recent regime in Iran. Markaz publications, Tehran.
  25. Shayan, H., Memar Dezfuli, S. (2015), Comparative analysis of the architectural approaches in Iran (recognition of the theory in the works of three generations of architects (Naghsh-e Jahan, Vol. 4., Issue. 2.
  26. Silvaieh. S. Daneshjo, KH. & Farmahin Farahani, S. (2013) "Geometry in the pre-Islamic Iranian architecture and its manifestation in Contemporary Architecture," Naghsh-e Jahan, Vol. 4.
  27. Sobat Sani, N. (2013), An introduction to some of the impacting factors on the contemporary architecture of Iran between 1942 and 1979, Armanshahr Architecture and urbanization journal, Issue. 11.