Formal-comparative Analysis of the Spatial organization of Student residence Halls Based on their Spatial Threshold Patterns (Case study: Girls Residence Hall Complex in Imam Khomeini International University of Qazvin)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University,Qazvin, Iran.

2 School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Architecture ,Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran.


Functional quality of the student residence halls has a great deal of importance due to their collective nature and the fact that they are considered as housing units, identifying and defining the role of intermediary spaces on the spatial organization and and spatial consociation of student residence halls which is a compound system of masses and spatial borderlines can bring order to its system. This structure is defined through a hierarchy of transition spaces, between numerous external and internal factors and the interaction between the arenas and explains the thresholds in multiple orders, in the macro, meso and micro scales. With an emphasis on the factors of spatial threshold in the student residence halls, the following study aims to refer to the impact of their presence on defining the subjective and physical borderlines in order to define local territories. In order to do so and in order to evaluate this concept with a qualitative method, after explaining the concepts of spatial threshold, at first it analyses the impactful physical factors on the spatial system of student residence halls and then there will be an analysis on two instances of residence halls in the residential complex of Imam Khomeini International University which includes linear arrangement and the other which possess courtyards using the opposition of space syntax and architectural concepts in some of the factors of spatial systems. Another tools of the research is field research and researching the environment, interviews and objective observations. Results of the study indicates an emphasis on the position of intermediary thresholds, especially the role of central courtyard on increasing the efficiency of student residence halls in respect to the prevalent linear instances


  1. Alexander, C., Serge, C. (1992) Community, and Privacy, Trans: ManouchehrMazini, University of Tehran. (In Persian)
  2.  Altman, Irwin (2016) Environment and social behavior: Privacy, private space, territory and congestion, Trans: Ali Namazian, Publications of ShahidBeheshti University, Ed. 3, p. 15. (In Persian)
  3. Amole, D. (2009), Residential satisfaction in student, s housing, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 76-85.
  4. Ardalan, N., Bakhtiar, L. (2011). Sense of unity: Mystic tradition and Iranian architecture, Trans: Vandad, J., Ehsan Tayefeh, Tehran, Elm-e Memar publications. (In Persian)
  5.  Ashihara, Y.(1983), The Aesthetic Townscape, MIT press
  6.  Bahraini, SH., Tajbakhsh, G. (1999) Definition of territory in the urban spaces and the role of urban design for its fulfillment, Fine arts journal, issue. 6. (In Persian)
  7.  BalilianAsl, L., Sattarzadeh, D. (2015). Position of the in-between space in spatial organization of the architectural and urban elements in Iran (Case study: Tabriz city during Qajar era), Scientific-research journal of sciences and environmental technology, Vol. 17. (In Persian)
  8. BalilianAsl, L., Etesam, I. and Eslami, SG. (2011) Role of in-between spaces on bringing identity to the spatial diversity of the historical textures in Iran, Urban identity journal, Vol. 5., Issue. 8. (In Persian)
  9. Bemanian, M. & et al (2016). Analyzing the relationship between spatial configuration and doctrine in the Islamic architecture of mosques in the school of Isfahan, scientific-research bimonthly journal of the art and architecture university of Kashan (Journal of Iranian architectural studies), Issue 9. (In Persian)
  10.  Beck, M. (2012), Visibility and exposure in workspaces. In: Kim, Y. O., Park, H. T, and Seo, K. W, (eds), Proceedings of the 9th international space syntax symposium, Seoul: Sejong University, pp.017.1-017-10.
  11.  Bellal, T. (2007), Spatial interface between inhabitants and visitors in M, Zab houses .in: proceedings of the 6th international space syntax symposium, Istanbul, Turkey, 061,1-14.
  12.  Biarez, S. (1993), Government local etpolitiquesurbaines, CNRS, Grenoble.
  13.  Ching, Francis, D. K (2012) Form, Space and Order, Trans: AlirezaTaghaboni and SedighehGhavidel, Varesh Book publications, Tehran. (In Persian)
  14.  Heidary, A., & et al (2017). Analyzing the spatial structure of Iranian traditional housings using the space syntax method (Case study: Traditional houses in Yazd, Kashan, and Isfahan), Iranian Islamic urban studies quarterly, Vol. 7., Issue 28. (In Persian)
  15.  Heidary, A., & et al. (2017) Analyzing the role of courtyard on elevating the functional efficiency of mosques using the spatial organization method, Fine Arts journal, Vol. 22., Issue. 3. (In Persian)
  16.  Hillier, B. Hanson, J (1984), The Social Logic of space, Cambridge University Press.
  17.  Hillier, B, Hanson, J., & Graham, H. (1986). Ideas ara in the things: the application of the space syntax method to discovering house genotype. Environment and Planning B: planning and design., No,14(1), pp. 363-385.
  18. Hillier, B.(1996), Space is the Machine: A configurational theory of architecture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  19.   Hillier, B. (2007), Space is the Machine, Cambridge, Cambridge university Press.
  20.   Jorgensen, B. S. & Stedman R. C. (2001). Sense of place as attitude: lakeshore owners attitudes toward their properties .Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21, 233-248
  21.   Jun, H. Jo & John S. Gero (1998), Space layout planning using an evolutionary approach, Artificial Intelligence in Engineering, 12, 149-162.
  22.   Klarqvist. B. (1993), A space syntax glossary, nordiskarkitektur for skinning (2).
  23.   Lang, J. (2007) Creating architectural theories: role of behavioral sciences on designing the environment, Trans: AlirezaEinifar, Tehran university publications, Ed. 3., Tehran.(In Persian)
  24.  Manum, B. (2009), A Graph complementary software for axial-line Analysis, proceeding of the 7th international space syntax symposium , Stockholm, Sweden, 070.
  25.  Memarian, G. (2002) Syntax of architectural space, Saffe journal, issue. 35.
  26.  Moini, M. (2011), Explaining the quality of living environment based on the introductory factors of the place, Ph.D. thesis in the university of art and architecture, Islamic Azad University, Science and research branch.
  27.  Naghizadeh, M., Doroudian, M. (2008) Explaining the concept of transition in the fundament of Iranian civilization identity, Hoviat-e Shahr scientific-research journal, Issue. 3.
  28.  Newman, O. (2015), developing defensible spaces, Trans: Ravaghi, Faezeh; Saber, Kaveh; Tahan publications, Helle, Tehran
  29.  Penn. A., Desyllas, J. & Vaughan, L. (1999), The space of innovative: interaction and Communication in the work Environment, Environment and Planning B: planning and design, 26, 193-218.
  30.  Penn. A. (2003), space syntax and spatial cognition or why the axial line? Environment and behavior,35(1),p.30-65.
  31.  Peponis, J. & Zimring, C. & Choi, Y. K.. (1990), Finding the building in wayfinding, Environment and behavior, 22.
  32.  Rezakhani, Z. (2014) An introduction on the concept of articulation in architecture based on other methods of etymology, Iranian architectural studies journal, Issue. 5., Iran. (In Persian)
  33.  Schulz, C. N. (2002) Concept of residence into the allegorical architecture, Trans: Amir Yarahmadi, Agah Publications, Tehran. (In Persian)
  34.  Schulz, C. N. (2007), Roots of modern architecture, Trans: MohammadrezaJodat, Shahidi publications.
  35.  Soltanzadeh, H. (1993) Spaces of the gateways in the traditional architecture of Iran, Tehran, Publication of chancellery of social and cultural events. (In Persian)
  36.  Tabaian, M. (2014) Human and the environment: Psychological approach to the architecture and urbanization, publications of Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan, Isfahan. (In Persian)
  37.   Zimmerman, P. T. (2008), Liminal Space in architecture: Threshold and Transition Master of thesis in architecture, University of Tennessee