Explanation of Effective Factors on Perceptual Organization Pattern of Area 1 of Contemporary Tehran Based on Pattern Language Theory

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Urbanism , Kish International Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kish Island, Iran

2 Department of Architecture, Faculty of Arts and Architecture, Islamic Azad University south Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Urbanism, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art & Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.


District 1 of Tehran had experienced many changes during past few decades and much of these changes, had included few tangible matters, and never considered public’s concept of urban system pattern. The present study, tried to explain pattern language system of district 1 of Tehran, based Christopher Alexander’s theory of pattern language and adapt this theory to public’s concepts. This purpose was done by examining different theories belonging to prominent theoreticians, interviews and maps obtained from public and adapting them to the data of district 1 urban geographic system, live patterns were obtained according to pattern language theory. According to the findings of the research, among five major indexes of space organization (node, edge, landmark, path and district) from Kevin Lynch’s view, nodes had more importance to the people of district 1, and other indexes stood at lower levels of importance. Based on a 4-page format which was used for the first time by Miss Neda Nafeh in her thesis at Waterloo university, in field study format, these nodes were surveyed and analyzed by interviewing team on the pages, and consequently 37 graduals and reticulated live patterns were obtained. Since these 37 patterns were based on public’s concepts, they had the characteristics of being live and natural as well.


  1. Dadashpour, H., Afaghpour, A.(2016), Theoretical & Cognitive rationality Governing the Perceptual Organization, Journal of interdisciplinary studies in humanities
  2. Eizenberg, E. (2019), Patterns of self-organization in the context of urban planning: Reconsidering venues of participation,  Sage
  3. Hatefi Shojae, S.( 2015), The generalizability of the theory of living structure, Christopher Alexander, Study of Charbagh and Gardens of Isfahan, Baghe Nazar Publication
  4. Hosseinpour, M., Haraschian, A., Shayghan, F.( 2017), Cultural ranking of districts of Tehran, Study of District 1 as an example, International Conference on Civil, Architectural and Urban Planning in Thailand 
  5. Jiang, B. (2019), Christopher Alexander and His Life’sWork: The Nature of Order, Urban Science Journal
  6. Li, X., Lang, W., Wu, J., Hui, E., Chen, T. (2019), Identifying urban spatial structure and urban vibrancy in highly dense cities using georeferenced social media data, Elsevier
  7. Lynch, K. (2002), Appearance of City, Translation by Manouchehr Mazini, Danesgah Tehran Publications, Tehran
  8. Mansouri, S. A., Mohammad Zadeh, S. (2017), Developments of the perceptual organization of Tabriz city from the beginning of Islam to Qajar period, Baghe Nazar
  9. Parr J. B. (2015), The city and the region as contrasts in spatial organization, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
  10. Pensrose, R. (1995), Shadows of the Mind, Vintage
  11. Salingaros, N. A, 2000, The Structure of Pattern Languages, Division of Mathematics, San Antonio, Texas
  12. Steen, L. A, 1988. The Science of Patterns. Science, 240(4852): 611-616.
  13. Zekavat, K. (2010), Place of Spatial Organization in Urban Designing, Safe Publication